Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood sugar also called as blood glucose is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food which you eat. A hormone called Insulin made by the pancreas helps glucose from food get into cells to be used for energy. When insulin resistance is also one reason for diabetes. When the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to the cells or cells does not respond to the insulin, this condition is called insulin resistance.
Over a period of time having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Anyway, Diabetes has no cure, you can take a step to control your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes diabetes called as “ a touch of sugar”. These terms suggest that someone doesn’t have diabetes or has a less serious case. In fact, every case of diabetes is serious.
Signs and Symptoms of diabetes
The most common symptom of untreated diabetes include
- Increase urination
- Increase of thirst
- Intense hunger
- Weight gain & unusual weight loss
- Cuts and bruises that do not heal
- Male sexual dysfunction
- Numbness and tingling in hands and feet
Several other signs and symptoms can mark the diabetes onset. But they are not specific to the disease. In addition to knowing more than above Blurry vision, Itchy skin, Headache. Prolonged High blood glucose leads to glucose absorption in the eye, it leads to changes in its shape which resulting in vision changes. A number of skin rashes that can develop in disease
Low blood sugar is common in person in a diabetic patient. Most of the cases are mild and are not considered medical urgencies. Effects can range from Feeling of unease, trembling and increased appetite mild cases to more serious issues, sweating. Sometimes changes in behaviors like confusion, aggressiveness, unconsciousness, seizures in rare cases permanent brain damage or death in severe cases. Moderate low blood glucose may easily be mistaken for drunkenness. In some cases rapid breathing and sweating, cold, pale skin are characteristic of low blood sugar but not definitive. Drinking high sugar substance and eating sugar content are self-treated to moderate cases. In severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and person should be treated with injecting glucagon.
A rare but equally severe possibility involves extremely high blood glucose level without the presence of ketones.
Diabetes increases the risk of long-term complications. The complications of disease start after many years (10-20) but may be the first symptom in those who have. sometimes not received a diagnosis before that time.
Most of the long-term complications related to damage to the blood vessel. It doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to Stroke and coronary artery disease.
Due to damage to the blood vessels, the primary complications of it include damage to eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by the damage of blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and which results in the gradual vision loss and sometimes blindness.
Damage to the kidney is known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to the tissue scarring, chronic kidney disease, and eventually urine protein loss. In some cases, it required dialysis or kidney transplantation. Damage to the nerves of the body known as diabetic neuropathy. The most common complication of disease, the symptoms include altered pain sensation, tingling pain, numbness. This can lead to damage to the skin. Diabetes-related foot problems like diabetic foot ulcers may occur and cannot be treated so easily.
Diabetes is classified into four categories type1, type2, Gestational diabetes and other specific types. The other specific types are the collection of few individual causes.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by loss of the Insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, called as insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated. The maximum of type1 is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell-mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus leads to insulin. In North America and Europe, it causes approximately 10% of diabetes cases. Most of the people who are affected are healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs.Responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 can affect to the adult and may affect to children also, but was traditionally termed “juvenile diabetes”. These diabetes cases were major in children.
“Brittle diabetes is also known as labile diabetes or unstable diabetes. It is a term that was traditionally used to describe the recurrent and dramatic swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent diabetes. This term, however, should not be used because they are no biological basis. Still, type 1 can be accompanied by unpredictable and irregular high blood pressure, frequently with ketosis and some cases with serious low blood sugar levels. Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to the low blood pressure, gastroparesis, endocrinopathies and infection. These phenomena are believed to occur in type 1 no
more frequently than in 1% or 2% of a person.
Type 2 Diabetes is combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion, which is characterized by insulin resistance. This involves the insulin receptor due to the defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin. However, the major defects are not known. Due to the known defect, some cases are classified separately. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.
In the beginning stage of type 2, the predominant abnormality is reduced insulin sensitivity. At this stage, high blood sugar can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that frequently improve insulin sensitivity or sometimes reduce the liver’s glucose production.
Type 2 is majorly due to the lifestyle factors and genetics. A number of lifestyle factors are known to the development of type 2, which includes obesity, poor diet, stress, urbanization, lack of physical activity. Excess body fat is associated with 100% of prime Indians and Pacific Islanders, 60-80% of cases in those of European and African descent, 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent. Even those who are not obese often have a high hip-waist ratio.
More consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk of diabetes type 2. Eating lots of white rice also may increase the risk factor of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes resembles more like Type 2 in several symptoms, involving a combination of relatively inadequate responsiveness and secretion. Mainly it occurs in about 2-10% of all pregnancies and may disappear after delivery or sometimes it improves. However, after pregnancy, approximately 5-10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 commonly. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable but requires careful medical supervision throughout the completion of pregnancy stages. Management may include blood glucose monitoring, dietary changes, and insulin may be required in some cases.
Though it may be transient, Gestational diabetes which is untreated can damage the health of the mother and fetus. Risks to the baby include high birth weight, congenital heart, skeletal muscle malformations, central nervous system abnormalities, and increased levels of insulin in the fetus’s blood may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. In several cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion. In some, in cases, Labour induction may be indicated with decreased placental function.
Prediabetes indicates a condition that occurs when a person’s blood glucose levels are higher than the normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2. Many people destined to develop type 2 after a spending many years in a state of prediabetes.
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults is a condition in which type 1 mostly develops in adults. Adults with Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type 2 based on their age rather than their cause.
In some cases of diabetes are caused by the body’s tissue receptors no responding to insulin even when insulin levels are normal, which actually separates it from type 2 and this condition is uncommon. Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some situations. any kind of disease which causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes.
Other forms of diabetes include cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, congenital diabetes which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, several forms of monogenic diabetes and steroid diabetes induced by high dose of glucocorticoids.
As per the World Health Organization people with fasting, glucose levels from 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l(110 to 125 mg/dl) are considered as impaired fasting glucose. People with plasma glucose at and more 7.8 mmol/l(140mg/dl) but not over 11.1 mmol/l (200mg/dl) after two hours 75 g oral glucose load are considered as impaired glucose tolerance.
There is no prevention for type 1. 85-90% of all cases are of type 2 which can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, consuming a healthful diet and engaging in physical activity. Higher levels of physical activity more than an hour per day can reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%. Dietary charges known to be effective in helping to prevent disease include maintaining a rich diet in whole grains and fit and choosing good fats like polyunsaturated fats found in fish, nuts and vegetable oils.
Limiting eating less red meat and sugary beverages and other sources of saturated fat can help prevent the disease. Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.
The difference between type 2 and the main modified risk factors ( unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, excess weight and tobacco use) it is similar in all regions of the World.